Sunday, August 13, 2017

Summer 2017 Watercolor Class

Watercolor Class: Textures in Watercolor

A couple weeks ago we had a fun time in class creating our own watercolor samples of different ways to make textures in our watercolors. I am posting a few of the things we explored but it is better if you do this for yourself so you can see what the real texture looks like, sometimes a photo only says a few words and leave you guessing.

The plastic wrap needs to first be wrinkled up the placed on wet paint. Don't try to smooth it you want all the wrinkles and creases. This will take at least 45 minutes to an hour to dry depending on the weather, setting it near a heat source or outside in the sun will help a bit but it has to dry through the paper and that takes a while so be patient.

Masking Fluid into wet paper, this one is tricky but very useful when doing something like sea foam or clouds. Wet the paper first with clear water then paint the masking into the areas you want to protect and let it dry before painting over it or it could get into your good brush.

Masking fluid on dry paper is the traditional way of using masking fluid. Paint out the areas you want to keep white and let it dry before starting to paint. In both cases let your painting dry completely before removing the masking or you run the risk of tearing your paper.

I had 4 different kinds of salt: table salt, rock salt in a grinder, rock salt and popcorn salt. Each of the different sizes has its own look, table salt works the best but knowing how the other work may come in handy in the future. For best results I found if you wait until the shine has gone of the painted area before you add the salt you will get better results. Too wet and you don't see much, too dry and it doesn't do much. This take practice to fine tune.

The baking soda didn't do much but this was the first time I had used it. May have to try again.

I used regular coffee (decafe, but the doesn't make a difference) and sprinkled the grounds on very wet paper and let it dry. You can get the look of old stained paper.

The wax resist and the scraping are permanent so only do them if you are sure it is what you want to do.

Wax resist acts a lot like masking but it never comes off. Some artists will sign their name with the wax then let the name develop with each glaze or color. this can be good for breaking waves, highlights and can be put over painted areas if you want to keep that color. Use a white candle or paraffin.

The scraping can be done with a knife or Exacto blade or you can use an old credit card and cut angles and points into. Scraping damages the paper surface so it is permanent.

Alcohol can be put in a spray bottle or just use a toothbrush  and flick it on. Like the salt, wait until the shine leave the paint before hitting it with the alcohol for best results.

The green one is water spritzed on with a toothbrush. A bit different than the alcohol because it has more time to work to create blooms. Wait for the paper to lose its shine for best results.

I just used some India ink and brush to make lines, you can use paint then spritzed it with my squirt bottle in places. Ink needs to be wet/

Lifting with a paper towel can make great soft clouds. Find a towel like Viva or a tissue without a pattern to use for this technique or it make leave that pattern in the paint.

Sponges can also be used to create texture. Natural sea sponges have a lot of different textures all on one sponge if you look for the right one at the store. Just dip it into your paint
and tap it on the paper. The harder you tap the more paint comes off so start gently.

You can do a similar thing with a scrunched up paper towel.

Wetting the paper first then dropping or lightly adding color can create some soft diffused patterns that are great for out of focus backgrounds.

Here are 2 examples of how to use scraping and lifting to create veins in a leaf.

This is just a small sample of what kinds of things you can do with watercolor and a bit of experimenting, look through your cupboards and see what else you can find.

Until next time keep painting and I will see you in class.

Saturday, July 29, 2017

Summer 2017 Watercolor Class

Watercolor Project: Summer Fun Week 4

I was finishing up my painting this week and put in the tire tracks with just a light shadow color (blue, purple and water) and made a series of little comma strokes. Making a series of comma strokes is better than just painting a line for several reasons: First a line looks way to straight and it doesn't look flat. Second the comma strokes can be varied in size to make the peaks look taller of flatter depending on the height of the "up" part of the comma. This is sand, so it is going to have a lot of variation depending on new tracks or people walking across the tracks. Finally, the bottom of the comma should flatten out so that visually the sand levels off between the ridges ___/  making you sand look flat. This takes practice and understanding, for now just trust me on this.

At the ends of some of the tracks I took some of the splash colors and used them at the very ends of the tracks, held my paper at an angle then added enough paint and water to make it drip, this ties it in to the drippy part of the painting and is optional if you want to try it. Remember we are experimenting with this painting and it is just a piece of paper.

The other thing I like to do when I am doing this splashing technique is to go over edges or and small detail with a permanent ink, fine point marker. If you have an India ink pen that works also. 

The lines help define the edges of things that might get lost in the splatters, try to keep the more solid lines in the foreground and broken ones in the background. The "AVE C" I did with a small paint brush and some gray I had on my palette.

As far as I am concerned, I am finished with my lifeguard tower, you can always find more to do but at some point you need to stop and live with it for a few days. Se it aside and don't look at it, after a few days set it up and step back 6 - 10 feet and look at it. If nothing jumps out at you, you are done. It is wise to not assess your work when you are sitting right on top of it, you need to stand back and see it in total and/or you can look at it in a mirror or upside down even upside down in a mirror, if nothing stands out like a sore thumb, it is done.

Next week we are going to be doing some more experimenting but this time we will be making samples of textures using various techniques like salt and Saran Wrap, you can use the backs of old painting you don't like or scraps of watercolor paper. This is a fun thing to do and will give you a catalog of textures as reference for future painting. 

keep painting and I will see you in class.

Saturday, July 22, 2017

Summer 2017 Watercolor Class

Watercolor Project: Summer Fun Week 3

When you are working in watercolor, you work in layers or washes to build up value (darks) and color intensity (strength of the color), this is what I was doing in class this last time.

I added another layer of color over all of my lifeguard tower to intensify the color and to help it stand out from the back ground. I also added more dark colors in the shadows to make them stronger which give more intensity to the light in way of contrast.

I also added the shadow under the tower with a mixture of ultramarine blue and a tiny amount of purple to make a lavender blue color. Please look at the shape of the shadow on the ground because it will help set your tower down, it has a unique shape under the ramp and at the front of the tower. Most of you just painted  a solid stripe the same width and shape from the ramp to the back of the tower totally missing the fact that the ramp is offset to the other side of the platform and that here is some light that goes under the tower because the sun is low in the sky. ALWAYS LOOK BEFORE YOU PAINT. Shadows are important and they have their own shape, be aware of that fact.

The poster on the back of the tower doesn't require a microscope to put in what looks like writing and pictures. This is where negative painting comes in. Leave the areas you want as writing or the little squares you see in the photo, the under painting that is there PAINT AROUND those areas with a darker color so you leave the lighter under painting which now becomes a suggestion of words and pictures.

I also started to add shadows to the railings and posts.

I think I will be finishing up my project next week but if you still need to work on it longer take you time finishing you own project, we have about 3 weeks left in the semester. If you are done with your project bring something of your own in to work on and I can help you get started on your project.

Keep painting and I will see you in class.

Sunday, July 16, 2017

Summer 2017 Watercolor Class

Watercolor Project: Summer Fun Week 2

In our last class I started the under painting for the lifeguard tower and the sand.

Remember that in watercolor we work from light to dark so if we need something to be light we need to save it.

The first thing I did was to paint the entire tower, except for the windows, with a light wash of color. I didn't paint around any of the posts or railings, I painted EVERYTHING in this first color. This will be come highlights if I need them. (I used my Cheap Joe's color of Andrew's Turquoise you can use any blue or add a touch of green to the blue if you want.)

When this wash was dry, I added some purple to my color and this time I painted around the railings and other light areas and put a wash of color over everything that is darker or in shadow. I may do this several more times to bring up not only the value (light vs dark) but also to increase the intensity of the color or its vividness.  Watercolor dries lighter so getting the right amount of intensity can take several layers and it is better to sneak up on the color rather than trying to get it in one shot because you end up putting the color on too thick and lose the watercolor look in your painting.

The windows are done in a couple of steps. the first step are the window frames. Because they are in shadow they are not white or we could leave the white of the paper. I mixed a gray of ultramarine blue and a touch of burnt sienna with a lot of water to make a tint of gray and covered the whole area and let it dry. I re-wet just the window pane areas with water and wend over with a light wash of blue, let it dry for just a second or two, then took a stronger mix of blue with a touch of purple (very little purple or you can use a touch of alizarin) then just made some shapes in the window. Look at the photo and all you will see inside the tower are dark shapes, that is all you are creating.

The flag is pretty simple, the thing you need to remember is the top and bottom stripes are red and the stripe under the blue is white. With my small angled shader, I used my ultramarine blue and just dabbed it in where the blue should be leaving a few white spots showing. You do not need to do all 50 stars, just suggest them. Same with the stripes. Because the flag is waving the stripes are not straight and may disappear or you only see parts of them. Don't over think it, keep it simple.

I will be continuing from this point in class, I hope you can get your paintings to this point for class.

Keep painting and I will see you in class,

Sunday, July 9, 2017

Watercolor Class Summer 2017

Watercolor Project: Summer Fun Week 1

There are times as artists we need to get out of our comfort zone and try new things just to expand our skills, our knowledge and to face our fears - yes fears. We are so afraid of making "mistakes" we forget that art is suppose to be fun, and I often fall into that category my self. I will see the rut I am in from the bottom looking up and realize I am just going through the motions and I need to find something that really challenges me and that is how I got into splattering.

I was in a rut reading one of my watercolor magazines when I came across an article on a woman artist and she started all her watercolors by splattering. It looked interesting and really wasn't in my comfort zone but if I didn't like it all I was out was a bit of time and a piece of paper. I had so much fun I started looking for more subjects where I could use splattering.

I find it works best if you have a simple subject but I have used it very effectively with more complicated subjects, I just think it brings a sparkle and a bit of fun when used in a simple setting.

I took the photo of the life guard tower and thought what fun this would be to add a bit of summer fun with splattering. I used my warmer colors (red, orange and yellow) in the sky but didn't sweat it if they went everywhere, same with the cooler colors (blue, purple and green) I used in the land area. It just doesn't matter. What does matter is to know when to stop. It can feel really good to just throw paint then next thing you know you have a pool of mud on your paper. You can always add more.

I also used plain water when I splattered and where paint and water touched, it created a bloom or back run a fun thing when doing this kind of thing. Then I let it dry completely when it was where I liked it.

I had already put my drawing on the paper so I now needed to start working on the back ground.

Notice how the negative painting makes the tower stand out.

The color you choose is up to you for your sky, I wanted it to say "California Sun" so I started with my yellow around the tower moving it out from the tower and the top of PV. While it was still wet, I went right into my orange and started the orange just inside the yellow and let the watercolor blend itself (the yellow needs to be wet for this to happen). I repeated this with my red but as I moved the red out towards the edges of the paper, I rinsed my brush often and used just water to move the red until it faded out. Rinsing your brush often is key to this technique.

The PV cliff were done using burnt sienna, a touch of blue and water to thin the color, the green trees I added Hooker's green to the sienna color to gray the green.

The water was my ultramarine blue with water and touches of thin purple.

Don't forget to paint the water and the cliffs behind the railings of the tower. This is called negative painting when you paint around an area and in watercolor it is important to remember this technique.

Try to have your paintings to this point when we meet again in class. I will be continuing from this point.

Sunday, May 28, 2017

Spring 2017 Watercolor Class

Watercolor Class Project: Farmers' Market

This is the final on the Farmers' Market project. I hope that you learned that but taking it one step at a time even the most complicated subject can be fun and challenging. You can only paint it one stroke at a time regardless of whether it is simple or intricate so don't let the subject scare you away.

Here are some of the final things I did to complete this project:

The grating on the front of the fruit stands does not need to be  detailed out board for board. I suggested the cross hatched panels by using a light grey (ultramarine blue a touch of sienna and lots of water) and using the dry brush technique (very little water or paint on the brush) with my 1/4" angle brush, I did a series of //////// strokes, then I did the reverse the same way only \\\\\\\\\, so it looks like vague "Xs" . Then I added some darker gray in a few spots to suggest you could see behind the grate to the darkness under the stand. All that matters is that is suggests the grate, it doesn't need to hit you over the head with it.

The fruit in the stand needs to look like it is going into the distance to create depth in the painting, so remember that as things go into the distance they become less intense in color, closer together, and less detailed. The fruit that is closer can have more detail and that tells the viewer what they are looking at in you painting. Even the little lady is just a suggestion as are the figures in the door way but it is enough of a suggestion to suggest people.

This was a happy accident. I hadn't planned to make the oranges as big as they turned out but because I did they look like they are on a stand closer to the viewer than the apples behind them, I am good with that, gives a bit more depth. Notice the difference between the detail in the pineapple and oranges and the apples and peaches behind. The peaches are just basically shapes of color yet it says peaches.

The signs and price tags do not need to be detailed either. All you need are a couple of them that show some believable word then the rest of them are just marks that suggest words. Let your viewer do some of the work.

The lights and the string lights were pretty simple. for the big ceiling lights after I removed the masking I did a bit of lifting right around the area that was masked. If some of the color remains, that is okay, it just needs to be a bit lighter not paper white. While it was still wet, I flooded the area with a mix of yellow and orange to create a golden color, when it was dry I suggested the fixtures. Don't get nit picky with this or it will look over worked. The string lights I just took a dark color on my 1/4" angle brush and just touched the chiseled end to - once again - suggest the wire holding the lights.

While this was a complicated scene once we broke it down into manageable pieces it came together quite well. 

Finish this to whatever degree of detail you want for your needs but all in all everyone did a great job and I hope to see you all next class. 

Keep painting.

Thursday, May 11, 2017

Watercolor Spring 2017

Class Project: Farmer's Market Week 5

Because this project has so many little areas to paint, it takes time. It also teaches you to work in, around and through your painting because it can cause problems painting next to a wet area without worrying about getting back runs or blooms. It is also rewarding because you can continue to paint skipping around the painting while waiting for things to dry before you go back in to increase value and/or color intensity.

The first thing I did in the last class was I put masking fluid back on the string lights behind the counter. I really needed it to be darker so not only would the lights show up better but also so that the plastic bags in the front would also show. Remember that you heed to use contrast - light against dark - to create a sense of depth. After the masking dried, I went back over the area - the entire area - with a thin mix of blue and a touch of crimson. Now you can see how the plastic bags stand out against the darker background.

I started the pineapple and finished the oranges.

The pineapple is interesting because the two sides of it's leaves are different. the under side has a stripy variegated look to it almost like chevrons in a pale blue/green color and the top of the leaves is more a solid green. 

While I hadn't intended it to happen, once I got my oranges painted in I realized that because I had made them bigger than the apples by quite a lot, the oranges appear to be on a closer table than the apples, not wrong just a happy accident because it gives more depth to the painting.

Everyone was curious about what I was going to do with those blank tags in the fruit in the front and the tags in the back, well, write on them of course!

Here's the trick when putting written words in a painting especially if they are very small: Find one of the closer tags and write all or part of an actual word or number (see the peaches tag in the front?) then the rest of the smaller tags in the back only need to suggest letters and numbers, the viewer will fill in the rest.

I still have work to do on my painting so I will continue bring my painting up in color and value, adding detail...I probably have a week or two before I am finished.

Keep painting and I will see you in class.

Sunday, May 7, 2017

Spring 2017 Watercolor

Watercolor Class Project: Farmers Market Week 4

The next couple of weeks will be rather repetitive because you will be working around your painting bringing up the intensity (color) and value (darkness) in select areas, as well as adding detail in the foreground.

This is an important thing to understand as an artist: By creating things that have more detail in the foreground, you only need to suggest things in the background. The viewer will see oranges and apples then shapes and color and will assume that you have a whole market full of fruit, when all it really is is shapes and color.

I took a bit more time with the oranges using, napthol red with cad orange for the shadow parts of the orange, then adding yellow to the orange for the light areas leaving some of the very light first wash as the highlights. You can work the oranges without stopping by choosing oranges that aren't next to each other so they won't bleed into each other, though it wouldn't be wrong if it did.

I did the apples the same way using the napthol and crimson and made just general shapes or apples.

The plastic wrap is just light and shadow in don't make it any more complicated than it is, just look at the values and shapes before you start to paint.

Saturday, April 29, 2017

Spring 2017 Watercolor Class

Class Project: Farmer's Market Week 3

One thing I don't mention often enough is composition, and it is one of the most important things to a pleasing painting.  This painting has very simple composition with strong perspective lines leading you into the painting. Also, things are placed in critical areas such as the worker and the purple flowers, they are on or near the "thirds" of the painting and with the pineapple in the corner for a triangle keeping you in the painting. Yes, I was thinking this as I was taking the photo, good composition is just as important in photography as it is in painting and many cameras have a thirds grid that you can use when you are composing a photo, use it rather then the center focus circle when you are taking photos and you will see an improvement in your photos and your art.

One of the things about a painting like this is because there are so many elements involved, you can move around the painting so that one area can dry while you work on another area in that way you bring it all up to the same level as you paint. Don't get stuck in one place not only will it look over worked but you will also create mud.

When I did the lettering I did break out my 1/4" angle brush but the letters are not hard to do. Using the sharp edge of the brush, I just touched the paper, gave a tiny side pull then moved on to the next letter and let them dry before adding the outline done the same way without the pull. The art work that looks like oranges on the end are just round orange circles I let dry then added some green leafy marks. Don't sweat the small stuff, just suggest the letters and shapes your viewer will do the rest.

The floor was painted with water first then starting with the light color (yellow and a touch of orange), I covered the floor area. While it was still wet, I picked up sienna and orange, starting about his foot, applied that color on the lower part of the floor and finally, I added blue to the sienna for the very foreground to suggest sunlight and shadows. Because watercolor dries lighter, I may have to do this again.

If you have under painted the flowers with light colors as you should have, creating the impression of a bunch or mums is simple. Again I used my  1/4" angle brush (you can use a small round or flat brush) mixing first a slightly darker purple (purple with a tiny touch of blue and water) and once again using the edge of the brush, I just touched the paper to give the suggestion of petals, leaving some of the lighter color for the centers. Look at the photo before you start this, even practice on a separate piece of paper if you have to it is very easy once you figure it out but it will take practice. The dark purple is the same colors less water. The leaves are done the same way, same brush just use green.

We have at least another week or two on this painting, do what you can and I will see you in class.

Saturday, April 22, 2017

Spring 2017 Watercolor Class

Watercolor Class Project: Farmer's Market Week 2

When I started class I continued to add value to areas I needed darker and where I wanted it a bit more finished before I took off the masking. When I was satisfied that I had my values dark enough, I let my painting dry and then removed the masking (arrows). Notice how each layer of values looks compared to the white paper that was under the masking, this is how you create light in a painting using the contrast rule.

Detail of the areas that were covered in masking.

Area where the lights will be. In after thought, I probably should have made this area even a bit darker before taking off the masking but it will be okay.

Now with the masking off my painting I can see how areas look and where I need to add more shadow and contrast, for now, however, I started adding some suggested detail. I want you to note that there are no defined shapes in these background subjects, they are just color that suggests something there. don't make a bunch of circles, make overlapping circular shapes leaving some of the under color for highlights and contrast. Save detail for the foreground, only suggestions in the back ground.

I darkened the hair of the worker and did a bit of work on the apron. The dark color is a mix of ultramarine blue and either burnt umber or burnt sienna, the apron was a mix of crimson, napthol red and some blue to darken, I also used this color on the apples and plums in the background.

I also wanted it to look like some light is coming in from the door in the back ground so I added a mix or yellow and burnt sienna to make a golden color that I put on the floor.

This is where I left off in class. While I am now getting into the detail of the painting I am not fussing with it, save the one haired brushes for the final accents but at this point I am still at the suggestion stage. Take your time but don't sit in one place in your painting. Work around and through your painting bringing all of it up at the same time to the same point, otherwise you can run the risk of overworking your painting.

Keep painting and I will see you in class.

Sunday, April 16, 2017

Spring 2017 Watercolor Class

Watercolor Project: Farmer's Market Week 1

The first thing I did after I had my drawing on my paper was to protect the areas I wanted to leave white with masking fluid (blue arrows). This will allow me to do washes and work with a bigger brush and not worry about painting around areas I want left white. I will remove it after I am mostly done working in that area and not worried about accidentally going over my white areas.

Only the protected part of the paper will be left white, everything else and be brought down in value.

Next I applied several washes of a neutral gray to tint the rest of the paper. I used what I call "palette gray" made by mixing all the leftover paint in the cool area of my palette, but if you need to mix the color, my standard gray is ultramarine blue and burnt sienna, remember to use lots of water so it is only a tint.

Look at the arrows in this second image and you will see 3 layers of this gray I added (arrows) The top of his head is the value of the first wash, I let it dry. I then went over all of the next darkest areas (see the wall arrow) with another layer of gray leaving lighter areas unpainted, I let it dry before adding yet another layer of value to even darker areas of my painting leaving lighter areas unpainted.

Please note: You do not need to make darker and darker mixtures of gray, you use the same value you started with when you did the first light wash. Because watercolor is transparent, if you let it dry first before adding the next layer, the layer(s) underneath will make the new layer look darker because of the previous layer(s) will show through.

You should have your reference photo in front of you so you can refer to it as you paint these layers of value. See where the light hits the worker's shoulders then moves into shadows on his chest and face? Paint around these areas with the next layer of tint, this will work to your advantage as you progress.

After I did several layers of the gray tint, I started adding color into areas where the fruit will be. Note that it is just a mass of color, not individual pieces of fruit and also not that the tint is light, remember that in watercolor you work from light to dark so this first color represents the lightest colors you will see.

The 2 toned patch in the foreground is done wet into wet. Either add a second color into the first while it is wet by just touching areas with the new color or if you have let it dry, re-wet the area then touch the area with the new color. Let the paint do most of the work, just drop and touch in the wet and the paint will do the rest.

Also, I had protected the mini-lights with masking at the start of the painting as well (see arrows). They should be dots close together in the background and more like dashes as they come forward and spaced further apart.

This is as far as I got in our first class. Do not be intimidated by the complexity of a subject, you can only paint it one brush stroke at a time, so relax and take your time, think about what you are painting and why breaking it down to one brush stroke at a time then even the most complicated of paintings will come together in the end. Be patient with yourself and the process.

Keep painting and I will see you in class.

Saturday, March 11, 2017

Winter 2017 Watercolor Final

Watercolor Study: Desert Values

The first day we worked on this desert scene we established our distant mountains, desert valley and the under painting for the foreground.

The distant mountains were made with a series of light washes on damp paper. This is the tricky part because you want the paper damp enough that you have soft edges but not so wet they blur out completely or so dry that you had a hard edge to deal with it is best to practice this first.

The "rule" about creating distance in a painting is: "As things go into the distance they become softer and grayer in color, less intense in color, less detail and closer together" keep this in mind as you create this background and keep your reference photo in front of you.

I first wet my paper from the top down to about half way then I did the sky in a wash of yellow. Your sky can be any color you want, with or without clouds just remember to keep everything light at this point, then let it dry enough so the shine has gone off the paper but the paper still feels damp, the with a light wash of blue and sienna with water to thin it - you want a color that is just a bit darker than the sky - you form the top edge of the distant mountain. Hint: If you start on the edge and the paint spreads to quickly, wait a minute and let the paper dry a bit more before trying again. Remember how the paper feels so you will know for your next layer how long to wait.

Paint this wash down to the bottom of the mountains, then wait until the paper has dried to the damp state you want before you add the next layer of mountains. Each layer is just a bit darker that the previous layer, just add a bit more blue and sienna to darken.

The desert valley between the distant mountains and the foreground still needs to have a grayed color because it is still in the distance but because it is closer than the mountains, you can add a bit of color to the blue/gray such as Hooker's or sap green and a touch more sienna.

If you painted the original yellow color all the way down to where the foreground starts, this is good, you may need to re-wet this area so that it is damp, this way you can just touch and drag your brush with the gray/green on your brush and leave the lighter sand wash as the yellow. If you didn't paint this area with yellow, you may need to add the sand color which is a thin was of sienna and any "mud" you have on your brush to gray the color. When the valley is done, let your painting dry completely before starting on the foreground.

Remember as a watercolorist, you work from light to dark which means that you will start out with what will end up being your highlights.

Also, the same rule as above applies when things are closer to you even in something like a still life, while things may have more color, the things in the background need to be just a bit grayer in color and softer or out of focus.

I used a similar color for the back part of the foreground bushes to what I used for the valley behind, but just a shade darker. I created an interesting shape to the top of these bushes by making somethings taller, others shorter; somethings wider others thinner. keep in mind that this is not a hedge that the gardeners prune every week, it is a wild landscape.

The distant cactus need to be a similar value as the surrounding bushes but you can under paint the closer cactus with what is on your brush because you will need to go over them again.

If you are doing the shadows and the twigs in the background, do not make them as dark as you will when you get to the foreground.

You may want to wait between layers of bushes before you add the next and with each layer while you are keeping it light, the color can become more intense, less gray.

Desert greens tend to be a bit on the blue gray side to begin with but to that you can add a bit of yellow or orange to brighten the color.

I added in the occatillo because someone who was not going to be able to get to the last class asked me how I was going to put it in,which I did with my liner brush. If I were painting this on my own and not in class, I would have waited until I had the cactus behind it done but if I am careful and I don't keep going over the cactus when it is wet, this shouldn't be a problem.

I also had a chance before class ended to start adding shadows and using the negative painting technique, I used the shadow color to create details such as the top edges of the layers of the bushes, some of the grasses and weeds, branches and twigs by painting AROUND these things with my shadow color, which, by-the-way, is a light wash of blue and green, I will make it darker in layers and will leave some of this color as an intermediate color. This is where I left off in class, I did do some work at home that follows.

I added a couple of layers of a darker wash over my closer cactus and let it dry in between each wash. As you can see, the lines of the occatillo can still be seen and I did not go over them again.

I added more shadow color to the shadows in the foreground but not in the back. Remember that the background color needs to be less intense because it is in the background. I did leave some of the previous color which now becomes detail in the shadows.

I added the cholla in the corner and deepened shadows. I am not going to put all the branches that are coming in from the side otherwise I would have used masking fluid to protect that area.

This is where I started when we had our last class. Notice that the furthest bushes and cactus are softer, grayer and less detailed than the foreground.

In class I kept working on adding shadows and creating details. There is a lot of negative painting going on here.

The darkest shadows are at the bottoms of the bushes. Look at the reference photo and you will see what I am talking about.

I added some red to the ends of the occatillo branches to suggest flowers even though they were not in the photo, I have seen them bloom and wanted to add a touch of color. This is just pure red to the edge of my 1/4" angle brush and ti just touched it to the paper or I used the point to make little dots. Nothing fancy.

I added another occatillo on the other side rather than the branches in the photo and I am calling this one done.

Remember that all of the things we did this semester were studies and studies are there so you can learn different techniques, try something you haven't done before, explore your subject before you include it in a "masterpiece", this give you confidence so you know what you are doing when you do get to your painting because now it isn't something foreign, it is something you know.

Keep painting and I will see you in class!